By the position from which they play AND open their hands, the players and their style of play define what type of hands are in their range, but if you want to study the range of hands for you to play from different positions at the table, you should search the internet for the poker hand range tables starting hands and so you learn a bit about hand ranges.
It's going to take lots of time and dedication to learn. There are tons of resources for you to use for such a thing.
First thing is first - use preflop opening range charts to gauge ranges - if you think you're pretty well familiar with standard opening ranges then you are already one step ahead.
Take a program like equilabs or flopzilla - and run your hand/range on a certain flop vs that range - you do this exercise enough you will see patterns. You will start to know who has the range advantage in certain spots - bet sizing and post flop action should give you tells and help you narrow villans ranges down -- villans float flops for smaller bets (keeps them wide) while larger bets often polarize villans and will effectively narrow their continuing ranges very quickly.
Lots of subject matter on ranging villans - but to become good at it, you will have to put in the work and do your exercises - there are no short cuts to becoming good at this.