No big deal, ALL of us have been in the same situation, calling a huge preflop raise when we probably shouldn't. And there is no doubt I will do it again some day. My biggest weakness is I hate being rude, so instead of taking my time and thinking through a situation I end up calling.
Here is my thought process in your specific situation:
I have AQs and for whatever reason, I read the table that I can make a move and raise to 6xBB, OOP. Now the BB bumps it to ~24xBB, everyone folds around to me.
My thoughts, villain either has a big PP or is making a move with AK. But, I rule out AA or QQ, because I hold AQ. I also rule out AA, because as you pointed out AA probably does not reraise x4. No, villain is scared to see a flop for some reason. So that leaves KK,JJ,AK with AK being the outside chance, it is also a hefty scared reraise for KK, so I'm leaning towards JJ at this point.
So before I decide what to do, how do I see the hand playing out? I can go over the top, but I don't see AK or KK folding and both hands crush me. If he has JJ, I have an outside chance he folds but not likely enough to make the move. Going over the top we are playing for stacks preflop and I would rather avoid that with just AQs. So going over the top is out.
If I call how will it play out? Well ~60% of the time the flop will be dry and out of position there is no way I'm leading out given the strength villain showed. And villain will undoubtedly make a continuation bet and then my only play will be able to go over the top and hope he thinks I caught a set. Once again something I'm not really fond of doing.
And if I do hit the flop, what can I really do with it? If an A hits, I can't get overly aggressive. The pot is already huge, but I'm out of position. I would once again prefer not to check raise an A flop, and if I lead out and get called how aggressive can I get on the turn? While I'm thinking JJ this doesn't rule ouf AK, especially since I was called. And if I'm reraised I'm really screwed. That would be a situation where I have to curse poker karma, running into AK or AA while holding AQ. I would call the reraise.
So what about if I hit a Q? That is probably the best flop I can get outside a monster. Now only KK beats me, as AK would not have hit and JJ would be no good. I am actually more comfortable leading this flop than if an A hits.
Then there are the monster flops like AA,QQ,AQ, or 2 spades. Those I'm wiling to play for stacks, but how likely are those flops?
So while it took a while to type, during play this entire thought process takes only a few seconds. I put my opponent on KK,JJ, or AK and dump the hand. I realize it is not worth calling the reraise because even if I hit a flop I can't get overly aggressive and calling in hopes of hitting a monster is just not worth the investment.
In your case, you called and hit one of the best flops you could hope for and still lost.