Personally, I would have continued betting on the turn. You had been the aggressor from the start, and your hand improved on the turn. I understand your point, that if you were beat previously, your prob still beat on the turn. However, your play was a standard c-bet on the flop, his range could be wider than you think.
If he was slow playing a big hand on the flop, he is likely going to re-raise the turn. This will at least tell you he's got a made hand and give you more info to play with on the river, should you decide to stick around. However, your check on the turn plays right into him, regardless of the hand he has. Your check is a standard play for someone who missed the flop and isn't willing to fire a second barrel. If he is slow playing, he thinks your folding to any bet on the turn, and he cannot get any more value out of his hand by betting. He would want you to catch something on the river or try to take another stab at it.
If he doesn't have a made hand, your check gives him a shot at catching a river card. He has no reason to turn down a free card without a hand, so he will check right behind you. In either situation, a check on his end makes sense and leaves you with no more information. A turn c-bet at least narrows his range, and gives you more info on the river. Lets say he calls the turn bet and the river action plays out the same way. You can be pretty certain you are no better than a split pot.
That is a scary board, so I wouldn't mind just calling his bet on the river and winning a medium size pot, or minimizing your losses. If I had to guess, I would say he had 87s and boated on the river.