re: Poker & Sitting on BB, everydoby folds, a 57/9 whale completes, what range should I raise?
It depends on the villain. Some will be very loose preflop, but fold if they don't connect; especially on raggedy A high, K high boards. Some will call down with nothing. You're right that it's wrong to C-bet if they won't fold, but you can't know which category they're in unless you C-bet. Once I know that they're calling my C-bets with air, then I'll stop making them and just bet for value when I make my hand.
Another advantage to C-betting versus the players that are loose preflop, but capable of folding postflop, is that it encourages them to call you down lighter once you've done it to them a few times. So when you do make a hand you're more likely to get paid off (They're also more likely to start calling C-bets, so I won't make them as often unless I hit).