Well you actually did the right thing at the time when you laid it down, because your 10s were beaten by his QQs, so congratulations on a good fold.
It is just a shame you weren't such a bad player as to say what the heck i'm pot committed, and called to suck out. lol.
It is unlucky you were not able to get back in as 5,000 chips still left you with a reasonable chance.
Should you have checked the turn?
Firstly that would have shown weakness, which is rarely good, and would probably lead to a dificult decision on the river depending on what he does.
Secondly you need to find out where you are in the hand.
If you thought he had 9, 7 or overcards then you usually need to bet.
You asked the question, he answered, you made the correct conclusion at the time.
However you say he went for chips, and you clearly thought he was strong, so much so that you folded to his raise.
So here is the key, you need to play it like chess. Think 2 moves ahead, what might happen if, and make your decisions accordingly.
In this case, ask yourself what you would do if he re-raises, and if the answer is fold, then don't waste the chips and take the free card.
(and also be thinking about possible river actions)
Obviously here your bingo card would have made the river decision easy for you.
Don't beat yourself up too much, you played well,
(on the day it just wasn't quite good enough or bad enough to take the hand down).