You're off to a good start, conscious incompetence. You know what you don't know, so work on learning it. Actively think about what range you've repped, and how this board fits that repped range.
Same for villain. What range is he likely on given his actions, and can that range actually call a bet here? Then the next step is figuring out if you want him to continue putting money in the pot or are trying to make him fold.
If villain's range cannot pay off a bet on this street but maybe will if you check and you want more money in, i.e your range is stronger than his, then check. If you're on a semi-bluff or simply want to capitalize on the dead money and his range can't necessarily handle multiple streets of betting, then you should bet.
It's not like it's simply that black & white, there will be other factors as well. But that's the general idea. How many streets of value can I get from this guy's range? How do I get that money in?