Heres my opinion:
To begin with i don't like the "small raise" part, if your gonna try and steal with 83 then raise a decent amount and find out what you're up against, either that or flat call and hope to hit a peach. You probably would have found that situation a lot easier to deal with if you had flat called then checked the flop to see where you were.
FOLD, It's easy, he could have any number of hands, a lot have you well beat. Any 8 with a bigger kicker, any 2 pair, any over pair, a set, a higher flush draw....... you get the idea. You're both even(ish) in chips, wait till a better spot.
How to combat the all-in pre-flop stratagy? You can't, you can however limit you loses or at least reduce the times you have to make hard all-in calls. Play decent cards and use your position, dont make a small raise from early position with 83 trying to steal the blinds, the same applies to limping in with middle pocket pairs ( 7's, 8's ), an all-in behind you makes your call difficult.
It's a basic and very safe answer i know, with experience you'll make your own plays.