I think you played this perfectly until the river.
That is a hard hand to get away from, considering literally nothing but 88 makes sense. I think it's just bad luck that the one hand he turned out to have was one of only 5 combos of sets he reasonably could have had.
But that doesn't excuse the river shove. Isn't the only two pair hand he could likely have A8, or K8? 87 is folding the flop especially since he's in the Hijack and with players to act behind. Is he one to overplay bottom two pair/ top and bottom? Same with AQ, another hand that would shut down on the river.
You beat 3 out of 4 likely hands which, once called when they 3-bet the turn, are happy to check behind on the river with the pot already that big. Let's give him busted flush draws and expand 4 to, say, 10 hands.
A turn shove would've been fine too. He could have a flush draw hoping to get callers from behind to give him the odds
, but is he 3-bet semibluffing the turn with it? Most players are going to give you credit for having a real hand on an AKx board and either fold since they're not getting the odds since everyone else folded since it's heads up or just call hoping to hit their hand, and don't want to get shoved on.
The Ace and King of clubs are both already on the flop - is he ever doing this with a naked Queen high flush draw, especially when he must think you've got at least TPTK and you raised preflop? You said you never saw him 3-bet that whole session - that doesn't seem consistent with the theory he has a flush draw or some kind of combo hand. I'm probably discounting this from his range.
Regarding your discounting of the set of 8s, I don't agree with your reasoning. It's a drawy board yes, but it's the flop, you're in middle position, so from the Hijack, the villain is in actually relatively early position if it checked through the SB and BB. Think of the times you have a set in early position - you sometimes have to risk letting flush draws get there on the turn in order to build a pot.
It would have a well-played hand if you said something like "I checked the river to induce river bluffs from busted flush draws/combo hands like Q7c", but check-raising all in against those hands is pointless anyway.